Learning Resources


COMING SOON: America’s Forgotten Suffrage Couple by Nicole Evelina
The very first full-length biography of Virginia and Francis Minor.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage. History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 1. Charles Mann, Rochester, NY: 1887. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28020/28020-h/28020-h.htm

—– History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 2. Charles Mann, Rochester, NY: 1887. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28039/28039-h/28039-h.htm#FNanchor_107_107

—– History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 3. Charles Mann, Rochester, NY: 1887. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28556/28556-h/28556-h.htm

—– History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 4. Charles Mann, Rochester, NY: 1887. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29870/29870-h/29870-h.htm


Corbett, Katharine T. In Her Place: A Guide to St. Louis Women’s History. Missouri Historical Society Press, St. Louis, 1999.

Fordyce, Christine Orrick. “Early Beginnings.” From “History of the Woman Suffrage Movement in Missouri.” Mary Semple Scott, Ed. The Missouri Historical Review. Volume XIV, Nos. 3-4. April-July, (1920), 288 – 299.

Forman, J.G. “Circular.” Francis Minor Record Books of Civil War Claims, 1864-1877. Vol 6/Western Sanitary Commission. Missouri Historical Society Library.

Hier, Marshall D. “Virginia Minor’s Struggle to Vote,” St. Louis Bar Journal, Winter 1992, 38-40.

Iati, Marisa. “This Woman Sought the Right to Vote From the Supreme Court. The Nine Men Denied Her.” The Washington Post. August 6, 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/local/history/suffrage-supreme-court-virginia-minor-vote/.

“Killed by Accident,” Daily Missouri Democrat, May 18, 1866, p4.

Koetting, Annora Kelledy. Four St. Louis Women: Precursors of Reform, Master’s Thesis, St. Louis University, 1973.

McMillen, Margot. Virginia Minor: A Woman in the Hall of Famous Missourians. Missouri Women’s Network, 2015.

Monnig, Donna M. “Anything But Minor: The Suffrage, Equality, And Women’s Rights Activism Of Virginia L. Minor, 1867-1894.” Master’s thesis, University of Central Missouri, August 2018.

Moon, Katie. Groundbreakers, Rule-breakers and Rebels: 50 Unstoppable St. Louis Women. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 2000.

Opdycke, Sandra. “Minor, Virginia Louise,” American National Biography. New York, NY. v.15 (1999), p. 576-577.

Pinkney, Helen R. “MINOR, Virginia Louisa,” Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary.  James, Janet Wilson., Boyer, Paul S.., James, Edward T., ed. United Kingdom: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. 550-551.

Ray, Angela G. and Cindy Koenig Richards. “Inventing Citizens Imagining Gender Justice: The Suffrage Rhetoric of Virginia and Francis Minor.” Quarterly Journal of Speech. Vol. 93, No. 4, November 2007, p 375-402.

Rice, Patricia “Suffragist Heroine.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, Mo) February 7, 1975, Page 35.

Shepley, Carol Ferring. “Virginia Minor.” Movers and Shakers, Scalawags and Suffragettes: Tales from Bellefontaine Cemetery, Missouri History Museum Press, St. Louis, 2008, 112-115.

Stepenoff, Bonnie. “Disenfranchised and Degraded: Virginia L. Minor and the Constitutional Case for Women’s Suffrage,” in Missouri Law and the American Conscience: Historical Rights and Wrongs. Ed. Kenneth H. Winn. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 2016.

VonBurkleo, Sandra E. “Virginia Minor: Women’s Fight for Suffrage.” 100 Americans Making Constitutional History. Melvin I. Urofsky, ed. CQPress, Washington, D.C., 2004, 137-139.

Walter, Lorerra Mae. “Woman Suffrage in Missouri, 1866-1880.” Master’s thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, August 1963. Washington University Special Collections.

Weisser, Amy. “Virginia Minor: St. Louis Suffragist.” Virginia Minor: A Woman in the Hall of Famous Missourians. Ed. Margot McMillen. Missouri Women’s Network, 2015.

Whites, LeAnn, “A Tale of Two Minors.” Women in Missouri History: In Search of Power and Influence. U of Missouri P (Columbia, Mo. 2004) 101-118.

Writings of Francis and Virgina

Minor, Francis. “Answers to an Examination in the University of Virginia Law School.” BR Box 56 (24). Undergraduate Alumni Records, 19th Century, Series 2, Alumni Files 1800-1899. Princeton University.

—–. “Citizenship and Suffrage; The Yarbrough Decision.” The Arena., Vol 5. Boston: The Pinkman Press, 1892, 68-75.

—–. Francis Minor to the Secretary of the Missouri Historical Society, November 12, 1866. Letter. Missouri Historical Society Library. Francis Minor Record Books of Civil War Claims, Vol. 1, Missouri History Museum Archives, St. Louis.

—-. Mr. Minor to The Revolution, January 22, 1868.

—–. Record Books of Civil War Claims, 1864-1877. Vol 1-7/Western Sanitary Commission. Missouri Historical Society Library.

—- “The Right of Women to Vote at Congressional Elections.” The Women’s Tribune. (Beatrice, NE), January 28, 1888. Vol. V, No. 3, 1.

—– “To the Editor of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, MO), March 22, 1887, 6.

Minor, Mr. Francis. “Public Opinion: An Open Letter to the Board of Freeholders.” in National Citizen and Ballot Box, ed. July 1876.

Minor, Virginia, “An Open Letter to the Board of Freeholders,” St. Louis Democrat, June 8, 1876.

—–. “Address to The House Judiciary Committee.” February 20, 1886. History of Woman Suffrage vol. IV, 78.

—-. Letter from Mrs. Francis Minor to Charles Henry Hardin, December 12, 1875. Papers of Charles Henry Hardin, Box 6, Folder 14, Missouri State Archives—Jefferson City.

—–. Statement before the U.S. Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage – Jan. 24, 1889.

—–. Virginia Minor to Her Nephew John Douglas Woodward.” Letter. The Valentine Museum, Richmond, VA.

—–. Virginia Minor to unknown recipient, April 12, 1864. Letter. Missouri Historical Society Library. Francis Minor Record Books of Civil War Claims, Vol. 6/Western Sanitary Commission, Missouri History Museum Archives, St. Louis.

“Woman Suffrage: A Letter from Mrs. Francis Minor,” Daily Missouri Democrat, January 17, 1874, 4.

Minor v. Happersett

Basch, Norma. “Reconstructing Female Citizenship: Minor v. Happersett,” The Constitution, law, and American Life: Critical Aspects of the Nineteenth-century Experience. University of Georgia Press, Athens, 1992, 52-66.

Clerk of the Court. “Guide for Counsel in Cases to be Argued Before the United States Supreme Court.” October Term 2015. https://www.supremecourt.gov/casehand/guideforcounsel.pdf.

Director of Education. “The Significance of the Virginia Minor Trial.” Virginia Minor Trial Packet, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 2006. https://www.nps.gov/jeff/learn/education/upload/Minor3.pdf Accessed November 26, 2018.

Galt, Smith P. “Brief of the Defendant in Error.” Missouri State Supreme Court Archives

—– “Demurrer to Petition.” St. Louis Circuit Court Archives. —– “Toast: ‘The Street Railway in the Courts’ Responded to By Mr. Smith P. Galt.”

Krum, John M. and Francis Minor. “Interesting Suffrage Case” Missouri Republican (St. Louis, MO), November 11, 1872, 6.

Krum, John M., Francis Minor and John B. Henderson. “Argument and Brief.” Missouri Supreme Court Archives.

Lewis, John. “Judgement Affirmed.” State of Missouri County of St. Louis. Records of the Missouri State Archives. Virginia L. Minor and Francis Minor her husband PE Vs. Reese Happersett DE. March Term 1873. No. 122, Box 727, No. 15. Page 5

Minor v. Happersett. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University. https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/88/162#writing-USSC_CR_0088_0162_ZS.

Post, Truman A. Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of the State of Missouri, Vol. LIII. W.J. Gilbert, St. Louis, Missouri, 1878. Missouri State Archives-St. Louis.

Vories, H. M. “Virginia L. Minor et al vs. Reese Happperset Respondant: Opinion per Vories.” Missouri Supreme Court Case Files. 53 M0. 58, 1873.

Waite, C.J. “Opinion of the Court.” Minor v. Happersett. March 29, 1875. Legal Information Institute. https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/88/162.

            —— “Opinion of the Court.” United States v. Reese Et Al 92 U.S. 214 23 L.Ed. 563, October Term, 1875. https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/92/214.

Newspaper Clippings

“Death of Francis N. Minor.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, Missouri), February 22, 1892, 8.

“Francis Minor: Sketch of a Lawyer and Scholar St. Louis Has Lost.” St. Louis Republic. February 21, 1892, Page 5.

“Mrs. Minor’s Mission: Interesting Chat Concerning the Woman Suffrage Canvass in Nebraska,” St. Louis Post – Dispatch, October 24, 1882; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1874-1922), 8.

“Mrs. Minor Not Allowed to Vote.” Missouri Republican (St. Louis, MO). November 10, 1872, 6.

“Mrs. Virginia Minor.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, MO), October 6, 1882, 2.

“Mrs. Merriwether and the Democracy” Belle Plaine News (Belle Plaine, KS), July 14, 4.

“Must Not Marry: Conditions Under Which Mrs.  Minor’s Nieces Become Heirs,” St. Louis Post – Dispatch, Aug 17, 1894; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1874-1922), 5.

“Tributes to Mrs. Minor.” St. Louis Post Dispatch. May 4, 1895.

“Virginia L. Minor Buried.” The St. Louis Republic. (St. Louis, MO), August 16, 1894. Page 7.

“Virginia L. Minor Dead.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, MO). August 15, 1894, 7.

“Virginia Minor and Women’s Right to Vote.” Gateway Arch (National Park Missouri), January 16, 2018 https://www.nps.gov/jeff/learn/historyculture/the-virginia-minor-case.htm Accessed November 26, 2018.

The Extended Minor Family

Anderson, Sarah Travers Lewis. Lewises, Meriwethers and Their Kin, Clearfield, Baltimore, Maryland, 2008, 289.

Blackford, Charles M. “Four Successive John Minors.” Genealogies of Virginia Families. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1981 390-398.

Blackford, Charles M. “Four Successive John Minors.” Genealogies of Virginia Families. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1981 390-398.

Bright, David L. and National Archivists, “Biography of Minor Meriwether.” https://www.csa-railroads.com/Essays/Biography_of_Minor_Meriwether.htm.

Clemens, William Montgomery, ed. “The Minor Family of Virginia,” Genealogy: A Journal of American Ancestry, Volumes 6-7 New York; William Clemens, 1916.

Clopton, Gene Carlton. The Ancestors and Descendants of William Clopton of York County, Virginia. Atlanta, Phoenix Printing, Inc. 1984.

Herndon, John Goodwin. The Herndon Family of Virginia: The Herndons of the American Revolution. Volume 2, Part 2 of The Herndon Family of Virginia, The Herndon Family of Virginia, University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1951.

“John Minor, of Topping Castle.” Dabney Family of Early Virginia. https://www.dabney-early-virginia.info/getperson.php?personID=I1874&tree=Dabney.

Meriwether, Elizabeth Avery. Recollections of 92 Years, 1824-1916 (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Commission, 1958).

Meriwether, Minor. Lineage of the Meriwethers and the Minors from Colonial Times. Nixon-Jones Printing Co.: St. Louis, 1895.

“The Minor Family.” Genealogies of Virginia Families. From the William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine. Vol. 3: Heale – Muscoe. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. Inc. 1982. 704-725.

“The Minor Family” The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 3, January 1901, pp. 179-182


The Minor Family Bible. University of Virginia Special Collections. Charlottesville, VA. Accessed June 24, 2019.

Minor, John B. The Minor Family of Virginia. Proffit, Va: John B. Minor, 1923. University of Virginia Special Collections.

Minor, Louisa H.A. Personal Diary. 1855–1866. In Records of the Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations from the Revolution through the Civil War. Series E. Part 2. Reel 26, Frederick: Maryland: University Publications of America. No page numbers. 

Noonan, Barry Christopher, “Descendants of Catherine WASHINGTON (1724-1750) and Col. Fielding LEWIS (1725-1803). (2008 Jun 23)” DESCENDANTS OF EDWARD III: A Continuation of the Marquis de Ruvigny’s The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal.” http://www.angelfire.com/realm3/ruvignyplus/039.html

“Records from Caroline County Order Books.” Virginia Will Records, 72-73. University of Virginia Special Collections.

Sorley, Merrow Egerton, comp. Lewis of Warner Hall: The History of a Family. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing, 1935, 132.

Tilson, Albert H. Jr. “Gentry in Colonial Virginia.” Encyclopedia Virginia. https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/gentry_in_colonial_virginia#start_entry.

Tyler, Lyon G., ed. “Minor Family” William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Volume 8, 1889-1900. Williamsburg, VA, William and Mary College, 196-200. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x000236562;view=1up;seq=427

Wise, Donald. “Minor Family.” Some Eighteenth Century Profiles. Arlington Historical Society. http://arlingtonhistoricalsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Wise-Some-18th-CenturyFamily-Profiles-Pt-2-AHM-1978.pdf